This RIRDC reports on the Rice Quality V project undertaken at DPI NSW the core activity of Rice Quality V is the assessment of breeding lines for various physical and chemical quality traits at different generations of the breeding program. This work culminates with the release of new Australian rice varieties such as Sherpa. The comprehensive development of breeding lines that includes both agronomic and quality benefits ensures that all sectors of the rice marketing value chain involved in the production and supply of rice from the growers to grain processors to marketers will be profitable and sustainable. There were 3 core objectives of Rice Quality V: Perform the routine Quality Evaluation Program in a timely manner. Continue to improve the efficiency, accuracy and cost of the Quality Evaluation Program Continue to conduct research that compliments and develops the scope of the Quality Evaluation Program. The purpose of these objectives was to broaden the scope of the Quality Evaluation Program, speed the delivery of data to breeders and to revise existing facilities, data management and equipment to minimise potential sources of error in the accumulation of data. Over time, these efficiencies will allow better decision making by the rice breeders and ultimately the release of better varieties in more regular intervals.Read More
Episodes of high temperature at anthesis, which in rice is the most sensitive stage to temperature, are expected to occur more frequently in future climates. The morphology of the reproductive organs and pollen number, and changes in anther protein expression, were studied in response to high temperature at anthesis in three rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Plants were exposed to 6 h of high (38 degrees C) and control (29 degrees C) temperature at anthesis and spikelets collected for morphological and proteomic analysis. Moroberekan was the most heat-sensitive genotype (18% spikelet fertility at 38 degrees C), while IR64 (48%) and N22 (71%) were moderately and highly heat tolerant, respectively. There were significant differences among the genotypes in anther length and width, apical and basal pore lengths, apical pore area, and stigma and pistil length. Temperature also affected some of these traits, increasing anther pore size and reducing stigma length.Read More
Rice (Oryza sativa) is recognised as a source of starch in the diet and is generally consumed as a whole grain or as a flour ingredient. Rice varieties have different qualities that suit different food applications. Some examples include the chalky
rice variety Illabong used for risotto, the soft cooking Opus for sushi, or the long grain, fragrant variety Kyeema as an excellent accompaniment to Asian foods. Some varities confer specific health benefits – for example, the variety Doongara is known for its low glycemic index (GI).
Understanding the influences of amylose and protein contents on rice sensory properties is key to maintaining quality and providing consumers with rice with desired flavour and textural attributes. This research focused on delineating the effects of nitrogen nutrition on cooked rice texture and flavour. The sensory properties of cultivars grown in adjoining fields with differing rates of nitrogen fertilizer (to yield grains with a large spread in protein contents) were measured by a panel trained in descriptive analysis. Second. rice sensory properties were modelled using apparent amylose and protein data. Fertilizer level affected protein and apparent amylose contents and, in turn, cooked rice texture. Protein contents were significantly higher (P < 0.0007) and apparent amylose contents were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) at the higher fertilizer level. Models revealed a negative correlation of protein content with initial starchy coating, slickness, and stickiness between grains—three attributes that are perceived when cooked rice is first introduced into the mouth. Models for roughness, hardness, and moisture absorption—attributes representing three phases of evaluation in the mouth—showed a positive correlation with protein content. The models provide insight into the magnitude of change in protein content that is likely required to observe textural changes in cooked rice.Read More
This RIRDC report presents the results of Rice Quality Evaluation program which is conducted as part of Rice Quality IV, and has contributed to the development of several cultivars that are in the final stages of release. The report highlights the achievements made throughout the lifetime of the project. The knowledge and advances made during the project are documented, and this report summarises these findings. Over 17 000 tests were performed on breeding lines as part of the Quality Evaluation Program, and through the introduction of new equipment the QEP has been significantly streamlined. Beyond the QEP for the breeding lines for the Rice Improvement Program, the Cereal Chemistry team analysed a range of trials for other RIRDC projects. The participation in the newly formed International Network for Quality Rice which has expanded the scope of the Australian rice industry through interaction with the broader rice community. The recent acquisition and maintenance of ISO 9001 accreditation is reported. This accreditation confirms that the data generated by Cereal Chemistry is from a calibrated laboratory with documented procedures. The post-harvest storage of rice can alter the rice quality - to address this concern a paper on storage has recently been submitted to a refereed journal. The progress made in exploring molecular markers is summarised. Screening breeding lines for grain quality is slowly moving towards the use of molecular markers instead of traditional wet chemistry techniques. The distribution of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline throughout the rice grain in an attempt to learn about fragrant rice.
This IREC Farmers Newsletter articles presents information and an update on the RIRDC funded project DAN212A on cooking quality. Cooking quality and specifically the structure and characteristics of starch in rice determine the use of rice in cooking and industry. This study focused on two types of starch, amylose and amylopectin. These two starches determine cooking quality in rice It investigated measure to predict cooking quality, amylose and amylospectin grain quality, waxy rice properties, protein and pasting properties, amylopectin structure and finally differences in resistant heat. This study is giving understanding to starch structure which in turn will increase the likelihood of creating designer rice varieties aimed at specific markets. In conclusion this study suggest that that a specific element of one of the starches in rice grain, the hot water soluble fraction of amylopectin, may be contributing to peak viscosity, texture of the cooked rice and glycaemic index.Read More
Sucrose is the main form in which assimilate, produced by photosynthetic source tissues such as the flag leaf blade, is transported via the long-distance vascular pathway to sink tissues. In sink tissue, sucrose may be used directly for metabolism or may be temporarily stored prior to remobilization for use at a later stage of the plant’s development. The primary sink tissue in cereal species is the filling grain of the panicle, in which the carbohydrate accumulates as starch in the endosperm and embryo.
The Yanco Agricultural Institute is the office of the rice breeders who develop new rice varieties suited to different niche markets and a wide range of cuisines. This pamphlet covers the role of the cereal chemistry team and the 2004/05 highlights. To create this varieties there are many stages in the breeding process and a key role is the rice chemistry team. They play a pivotal role in evaluating the grain quality parameters of various crossbreds and providing precise and timely information to breeders. To continue in this role they require to improve the efficiency and accuracy in evaluate the quality traits the rice chemistry team endeavours to adopt new tools and technologies to improve the current grain quality evaluation procedures. To continue with the demands of the program the purchase of a new grain inspector 'Cervitec' and the implementation of new molecular techniques, quality parameters of breeding lines can now be assessed more precisely, thus assisting rice breeders to develop new varieties more quickly. In this pamphlet the highlights of 2004/05 included new molecular markers for genetic evaluation, grain storage, pasting properties, new technologies to extract and analyse aromatic compounds from fragrant rice and the evaluation of new instruments for quality attributes.Read More
This IREC farmers newsletter is report covers the role of the cereal chemistry team and the 2004/05 highlights. To create this varieties there are many stages in the breeding process and a key role is the rice chemistry team. They play a pivotal role in evaluating the grain quality parameters of various crossbreds and providing precise and timely information to breeders. To continue in this role they require to improve the efficiency and accuracy in evaluate the quality traits the rice chemistry team endeavours to adopt new tools and technologies to improve the current grain quality evaluation procedures. To continue with the demands of the program the purchase of a new grain inspector 'Cervitec' and the implementation of new molecular techniques, quality parameters of breeding lines can now be assessed more precisely, thus assisting rice breeders to develop new varieties more quickly. In this pamphlet the highlights of 2004/05 included new molecular markers for genetic evaluation, grain storage, pasting properties, new technologies to extract and analyse aromatic compounds from fragrant rice and the evaluation of new instruments for quality attributes.Read More
This RIRDC project report is on the evaluation of rice grain quality in the rice industry of NSW. The report outlines the objectives which are to evaluate the quality of lines generated by the breeding program, to evaluate the quality of imported rices with a view to import replacement, to keep abreast of the demands of different markets, to develop new tests to replace subjective tests with objective tests, to incorporate new technology as applicable, and to conduct research to boost our effort of developing new varieties of rice with quality attributes that fall within the specifications of each market and that perform predictably in the range of environmental conditions experienced in the rice-growing area of NSW. The report covers cooking quality including amylose, milling quality, physical tests, and during the life of project three varieties were released. An additional component of this program was the unexpected development of strong links between this program and the International Rice Research Institute. The Australian industry has been unable to find common ground for collaboration with IRRI previously; this is now possible These links were established and formalised during this project, but their full potential will only be realised in the next project.Read More
The benefits of understanding these processes will eventually be realised in rice breeding through the identification of varieties likely to have the desired attributes that confer improved grain quality and will be important for farm management through establishment of appropriate fertiliser regimes that address not only productivity but also processing quality.Read More
Texture analysis of rice cakesRead More
Grain Quality in the Pre-Milling PhaseRead More
This CRC project was investigating Minerals for sustainable grain yield and grain quality. The two main objectives of the project were to develop a plant nutrient symptoms diagnosis protocol and develop a nutrient-based model of sustainable rice production. The project aimed to provide data which could be included in a model for a sustainable rice industry and review the role and importance of micro and macro-elements. The strategies adopted during this study included fertilizer inputs, management options, new genotypes, and linkages with foreign scientists. The method used to undertake the project included, field trials, laboratory trial and quality analysis. Literature reviews and evaluating grains from trials around the world. The project confirms the need for a reliable key to the possible nutrient deficiency symptoms which may occur in Australian rice varieties.Read More