• Rice lipids
• Effect of lipids in grain aroma
• Effect of lipids in cooked rice texture • Effect of lipids in grain appearance
This Poster presented at the Rice field day at RRAPL in March 2015 by Brian Dunn from NSW DPI Yanco. The poster presents information on the trial into NIR and remote sensing which is investigate the use of remote sensing to determine crop PI N uptake with the aim to reduce the need for farmers to physically sample their crops at PI. The results from the 2013 and 2014 are presented on the poster. The success of this project is aiming to be able to provide farmers with PI nitrogen rates without taking physical samples having to be taken.Read More
This RIRDC reports on the Rice Quality V project undertaken at DPI NSW the core activity of Rice Quality V is the assessment of breeding lines for various physical and chemical quality traits at different generations of the breeding program. This work culminates with the release of new Australian rice varieties such as Sherpa. The comprehensive development of breeding lines that includes both agronomic and quality benefits ensures that all sectors of the rice marketing value chain involved in the production and supply of rice from the growers to grain processors to marketers will be profitable and sustainable. There were 3 core objectives of Rice Quality V: Perform the routine Quality Evaluation Program in a timely manner. Continue to improve the efficiency, accuracy and cost of the Quality Evaluation Program Continue to conduct research that compliments and develops the scope of the Quality Evaluation Program. The purpose of these objectives was to broaden the scope of the Quality Evaluation Program, speed the delivery of data to breeders and to revise existing facilities, data management and equipment to minimise potential sources of error in the accumulation of data. Over time, these efficiencies will allow better decision making by the rice breeders and ultimately the release of better varieties in more regular intervals.Read More
Episodes of high temperature at anthesis, which in rice is the most sensitive stage to temperature, are expected to occur more frequently in future climates. The morphology of the reproductive organs and pollen number, and changes in anther protein expression, were studied in response to high temperature at anthesis in three rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Plants were exposed to 6 h of high (38 degrees C) and control (29 degrees C) temperature at anthesis and spikelets collected for morphological and proteomic analysis. Moroberekan was the most heat-sensitive genotype (18% spikelet fertility at 38 degrees C), while IR64 (48%) and N22 (71%) were moderately and highly heat tolerant, respectively. There were significant differences among the genotypes in anther length and width, apical and basal pore lengths, apical pore area, and stigma and pistil length. Temperature also affected some of these traits, increasing anther pore size and reducing stigma length.Read More
Rice (Oryza sativa) is recognised as a source of starch in the diet and is generally consumed as a whole grain or as a flour ingredient. Rice varieties have different qualities that suit different food applications. Some examples include the chalky
rice variety Illabong used for risotto, the soft cooking Opus for sushi, or the long grain, fragrant variety Kyeema as an excellent accompaniment to Asian foods. Some varities confer specific health benefits – for example, the variety Doongara is known for its low glycemic index (GI).
Understanding the influences of amylose and protein contents on rice sensory properties is key to maintaining quality and providing consumers with rice with desired flavour and textural attributes. This research focused on delineating the effects of nitrogen nutrition on cooked rice texture and flavour. The sensory properties of cultivars grown in adjoining fields with differing rates of nitrogen fertilizer (to yield grains with a large spread in protein contents) were measured by a panel trained in descriptive analysis. Second. rice sensory properties were modelled using apparent amylose and protein data. Fertilizer level affected protein and apparent amylose contents and, in turn, cooked rice texture. Protein contents were significantly higher (P < 0.0007) and apparent amylose contents were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) at the higher fertilizer level. Models revealed a negative correlation of protein content with initial starchy coating, slickness, and stickiness between grains—three attributes that are perceived when cooked rice is first introduced into the mouth. Models for roughness, hardness, and moisture absorption—attributes representing three phases of evaluation in the mouth—showed a positive correlation with protein content. The models provide insight into the magnitude of change in protein content that is likely required to observe textural changes in cooked rice.Read More
This RIRDC report presents the results of Rice Quality Evaluation program which is conducted as part of Rice Quality IV, and has contributed to the development of several cultivars that are in the final stages of release. The report highlights the achievements made throughout the lifetime of the project. The knowledge and advances made during the project are documented, and this report summarises these findings. Over 17 000 tests were performed on breeding lines as part of the Quality Evaluation Program, and through the introduction of new equipment the QEP has been significantly streamlined. Beyond the QEP for the breeding lines for the Rice Improvement Program, the Cereal Chemistry team analysed a range of trials for other RIRDC projects. The participation in the newly formed International Network for Quality Rice which has expanded the scope of the Australian rice industry through interaction with the broader rice community. The recent acquisition and maintenance of ISO 9001 accreditation is reported. This accreditation confirms that the data generated by Cereal Chemistry is from a calibrated laboratory with documented procedures. The post-harvest storage of rice can alter the rice quality - to address this concern a paper on storage has recently been submitted to a refereed journal. The progress made in exploring molecular markers is summarised. Screening breeding lines for grain quality is slowly moving towards the use of molecular markers instead of traditional wet chemistry techniques. The distribution of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline throughout the rice grain in an attempt to learn about fragrant rice.
This IREC Farmers Newsletter articles presents information and an update on the RIRDC funded project DAN212A on cooking quality. Cooking quality and specifically the structure and characteristics of starch in rice determine the use of rice in cooking and industry. This study focused on two types of starch, amylose and amylopectin. These two starches determine cooking quality in rice It investigated measure to predict cooking quality, amylose and amylospectin grain quality, waxy rice properties, protein and pasting properties, amylopectin structure and finally differences in resistant heat. This study is giving understanding to starch structure which in turn will increase the likelihood of creating designer rice varieties aimed at specific markets. In conclusion this study suggest that that a specific element of one of the starches in rice grain, the hot water soluble fraction of amylopectin, may be contributing to peak viscosity, texture of the cooked rice and glycaemic index.Read More