Posts in Disease
Rice Extension on the New Grower Services Web Portal for SunRice (2014)

Access to the RICE EXTENSION TAB will be for all growers who will have a login, and also to Advisors, non-SunRice growers, researchers who will need to be set up with a login password access. This group are an important link for future extension to be successful.

Read More
Rice field guide to pests, disease and weeds in southern New South Wales. (2013)

This DPI NSW rice field guide covers pests such as Bloodworms, Water snails, Leafminers, Aquatic earthworm, Common armyworm, Sugarcane and maize stemborer Tadpole shrimp , Yabbies, Locusts and grasshoppers Exotic pest threats. It also covers diseases such as Damping off, Stem rot, Downy mildew Cochliobolus leaf spot Sheath spot Aggregate sheath spot Glume blotch, Sheath brown rot Sheath and glume rot Exotic disease threats. Finally is gives details of weeds such as Impact of sowing method Integrated weed management Barnyard grasses, Silvertop grass, Dirty Dora Starfruit Arrowhead Alisma, Water plantain Sagittaria, Umbrella sedge Water couch Cumbungi (bulrush) Rushes, Common spike rush Bolboschoenus Alligator weed Water primrose Chara and Nitella. Each pest, disease and weeds has its lifecycle, crop damage, management, origins and key characteristics described to assist farmers. 

Read More
Pathogenicity, diversity, biology and sources of resistance to Pseudomonas fuscovaginae in rice (March 2013)

Pseudomonas fuscovaginae is a bacterial pathogen of rice that causes sheath brown rot, grain discolouration and panicle sterility. It is slowly gaining recognition as a yield constraint of rice in many regions of the world. Although, P. fuscovaginae was first reported in Australia in 2009, there is little information available on the relative pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the Australian strains when compared to world strains. In this thesis its pathogenicity and aggressiveness, as well as prevalence in the rice growing areas of the Riverina region in New South Wales Australia were presented. Australian strains were more pathogenic and aggressive than world strains. The DAR 77138 strain from Australia was the most pathogenic and aggressive. A further survey of bacteria associated with discolouration of the panicle and sheath in the rice growing areas of the Riverina region in NSW Australia in 2010, failed to find any P. fuscovaginae.

Read More
Investigating the links between minerals in rice grain and Straighthead - Rice CRC Project 2303 (September 2005)

Straighthead or “Parrot Beaking” is a “physiological” disorder causing distortion and a high proportion of missing grains on the rice panicle. Crop losses range from 10 to 30% in medium grains and as high as 90% in short and long grains.  Straighthead has been recorded in NSW rice crops since 1960s. It occurs in both the Murrumbidgee and Murray Valleys and the Coleambally Irrigation Area. Straighthead also occurs in Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas in the USA and in other countries who use other words to describe it.  There is no known cause of Straighthead although it can be induced in the glass house by addition of arsenic based compounds and straw or sugar to the soil. In Arkansas Straighthead is associated with the use of arsenic based herbicides used in cotton during rotation. Straighthead is thought to be a relatively minor problem in the NSW rice area as a whole but can be devastating to individual growers who have the problem. However, its true extent is unknown because it is often confused with cold weather sterility and may occur at low levels unnoticed in many crops.

Read More
Marker assisted selection in rice improvement - Link (August 2004)

Molecular markers are pieces of DNA that flag the presence or absence of particular traits. Molecular markers allow selection for these traits to be done on the basis of a simple laboratory test on a small amount plant tissue, rather than direct measurement of the character itself. The application of molecular markers as a new tool for rice improvement in Australia will improve the efficiency of capturing desirable characters in new rice varieties. The objectives of this project were to identify, adapt and evaluate molecular markers for routine use in the Australian rice-breeding program. The major component of the work involved the development of markers for the major fragrance gene (fgr), grain elongation on cooking and blast disease resistance.

Read More
Molecular Markers for Rice Breeding - RIRDC Project USC-4A (2003)

Molecular markers are bits of the genetic code (DNA) that are inherited along with the gene or genes that impart different traits in the individual, be it human, animal or in the context of this report, plant.  Molecular markers help plant breeders reduce some of the uncertainties of plant breeding.  Molecular markers are unique bits of DNA that indicate a plant (or other organism) has a certain characteristic Use of molecular markers has the potential to speed up the development of new rice varieties. Molecular markers enable the development of varieties resistant to diseases, without ever having to introduce the disease pathogen to the research program, or the industry.

Read More
Increasing on farm yields based on physiology research beyond 2000 (January 2002)

This IREC Farmer Newsletter report present results of a RIRDC project undertaken on increasing farm yields based on physiology research.  The aim of the project was to investigate increasing yield potential of new rice varieties with the outcome to help farmers to manage N fertilizer. District nitrogen trials were undertaken, investigations of PI nitrogen uptake and understanding rice yield potential. MaNage rice version 5.0 was released to growers in December in December 2000. Version 5.0 included a new slide, which predicts crop development. The high yield potential of the short season variety Jarrah at high N rates was found to be due to extended period of grain filling, ie from flowering to maturity. 

Read More
Many pathways to high yield - RIRDC Project TA990-45 (2001)

The International Rice Conference was held at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos, in the Philippines, 31 March - 4 April, 2000. The conference is only held every five years, and it provides a forum for rice scientists throughout Asia and the rest of the world to track new developments, present and discuss rice research.  The underlying message from a range of plant breeding technologies and research institutes is that my combinations of growth habits and yield components lead to high yield potential.  Further research needs to be conducted at Yanco to assess the value or other of using canopy temperature as an indirect measure of crop growth rate.  Several nurseries exist throughout the world for observing the growth of a large numbers of rice varieties. If NSW cultivars are to be included in such nurseries in the future, there is the need for the development of a policy by the owners (RIRDC and NSW Agriculture) of current and future rice cultivars.

Read More
Snail control with chlorothalonil - a new use for an old chemical? RIRDC Project DAN-184A (2001)

Chlorothalonil is a non-systemic fungicide that has been used in a range of crops for many years. A chance discovery overseas showed it to be highly toxic to aquatic snails and trial work at Yanco has shown that the main species of snail attacking rice plants in NSW, is also highly susceptible to this chemical.  Farmers need to be aware that chlorothalonil is not yet registered for use in rice, and its use in contravention of label directions is an offence under the NSW Pesticides Act, 1999.  The fungicide chlorothalonil has the potential to replace copper sulphate for the control of snails in rice.

Read More
New grower publication in Progress (2001)

The project reviews and updates the publication Rice Growing in New South Wales, which was produced in 1984, bringing together all the current understanding and knowledge behind rice growing practices and recommendations.  The publication does not attempt to provide information on 1tow to' but rather 'why' recommendations are given.

Read More
The intimate association between rice seedlings and clover rhizobia - RIRDC Porject ANU-34A (2001)

As summarised last year, our results demonstrate that a number of bacterial strains can significantly alter the growth of a rice seedling, either by enhancing it or by inhibiting it. In addition, many of these strains also have the ability to colonise onto and survive inside the rice seedling tissues without producing any gross disease effects. Some strains possess the ability to specifically colonise the first main anchor root and not apparently the other subsequent anchor roots. The genes responsible for this specialised colonisation property may also be associated with the observed enhanced seedling growth. We are now searching after these genes responsible for this specific type of rice colonisation characteristic to examine further this possible relationship.  Experiments have shown that the growth of rice seedlings can be enhanced by inoculation with rhizobia.  This effect is rice cultivar specific, bacterial strain dependant and can be influenced by the growth conditions used.

Read More
Risk assessment of exotic plant disease to the Australian rice industry with emphasis on rice blast (2001)

This CRC report presents the results of a pest risk assessment carried out using litrature, and software developed by CSIRO, CLIMEX and DYMEX. The suitability of the climate in Australian rice growing area for pest and disease were assessed using CLIMEX. Following this where possible a disease model was created using DYMEX and run with the Australian climatic data. The conclusion of the report stated that the Australian climatic conditions and rice growing practices were to be un favourable for most exotic diseases. However Rice Blast and Kernal Smut and Root Nematodes were identified as a possible threat if introduced to south eastern Australia.  

Read More
New Disease found in rice crops (August 2001)

A survey was conducted in rice crops in 1995 to establish the presence or absence of stem rot.  During this survey another disease was identified. This disease was similar to stem rot, causing lesions on the leaf sheath.  Sheath spot of rice was discovered in NSW rice crops in 1995 and is now reasonably widespread.  The disease may make the crop more susceptible to lodging.   The disease can be identified by sending rice samples to Yanco Agricultural institute.

Read More
Volatile aroma compunds of Australian Rice varieties (January 2001)

Fragrant rice is characterised by its pleasant fragrance and aroma. High milling returns and good cooking quality are often associated with fragrant rice (Nagaraju et al., 1975; Tripathi and Rao, 1979). However, fragrant cultivars often have undesirable agronomic characteristics such as low yield, susceptibility to pests and diseases and strong shedding (Berner and Hoff, 1986). Therefore, breeders wish to develop fragrant varieties with high yield and good resistance to pests.  Rice aroma is known to be genetically controlled (Reddy and Sathyanarayanaiah, 1980).  The study of rice aroma will be useful for identifying and locating the genes involved in the expression of this character. The characterisation of fragrant rice aroma will also provide markers to evaluate new fragrant varieties. Fragrant rice commands a high price compared to other rice. There is a strong incentive for its fraudulent adulteration. The ability to discriminate fragrant rice from cheaper, inferior rice varieties would protect the consumer and the honest trader. Therefore, the characterisation of fragrant rice aroma will benefit breeders, growers, marketers and millers of fragrant rice.

Read More