Posts in Draining
Factors to consider when draining rice (February 2015)


This NSW DPI Primefact sheet is and overview of the guidelines to take into consideration when considering draining rice. The fact sheets covers areas such as the variety selection and time of sowing, the water management after flowering. It covers the key factors such as field layout, crop nitrogen, time when crop maturing , sowing methods, time of draining, grain development stages soil types and who and where to contact for further information. 

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Mid-season Draining of Rice (March 2014)

This Poster presented by John Fowler at the 2014 Rice field day at RRAPL held in March 2014. The poster presents result and images of mid season draining. Midseason draining of rice is the practice of completely drying out rice bays in December, originally to reduce the impact of physiological sterility (“parrot beaking”).  Over three years nine farmer demonstrations indicated that two thirds of the crops gained an average yield increase of 18% by mid-season draining, the remainder had no yield impact. The practice is being adopted in the central and western Murray Valley.

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Split nitrogen continues show an advantages (2007)

This IREC farmers newsletter article present the findings of the nitrogen management project undertaken at Yanco DPI NSW during 2005/06 season. The reports concludes that split nitrogen application continues to show advantage over a total pre flooded application. Whilst a minimum application of 90 kg N/ha pre-flood is required in fields of low nitrogen status to sustain growth for a good grain yield. In bays undergoing mid-season drainage, nitrogen topdressing just prior to re-irrigation should be considered. Nitrogen uptake at panicle initiation in mid-season drained bays is different to that in conventionally managed bays, thus new calibrations are necessary to assess the nitrogen status at panicle initiation in drained bays.

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Researching Solutions to the Sustainability and Environmental Challenges for Rice-based Cropping Systems in Southern Australia (2005)

This CRC report presents the possible research solutions to the sustainability and environmental challenges for rice-based cropping systems in southern Australia. The report presents information on of four key areas including increasing water use efficiency and reducing recharge from rice paddock. This area includes rice paddock water use limits, rice soil suitability and agronomic option for reducing recharge for rice. The second area was conjunctive use of ground water. Whilst the third focus was management tools this presented information on tools such as SWAGMAN Devine and SWAGMAN farmer, ground water models and policy models. The fourth area was management of saline drainage with a focus on serial biological concentrate of salt and evaporation basins. A pilot trial is also underway to investigate the feasibility of serial biological concentration, with the production of high value crops in the first 2 stages, followed by salt tolerant crops (stage 3), fish farming (4), evaporation basins (5) and a solar pond to generate energy. 

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Ricegrowers Association South American study tour and 3rd international (March 2003)

This CRC report presents the information obtained from the study tour to South America. The author visited Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay and concluded that at time of writing that drainage, water quality from agriculture did not appear to be of high concern. This was concluded to be a result the countries having a abundant of water supplies from annual precipitation, groundwater, and major rivers. The report presents information on each of the three countries visited and their management of rice including herbicides, pesticides and agronomy. 

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Measurements of losses from on farm channels and drains (2001)

This CRC funded project had two main aims including to determine the magnitude of percolation losses attributable to on-farm channels and drains. The second major aim was to consider approaches and for need to identify problem were and to consider likely remediation techniques. The project was undertaken
within selected farms in Coleambally and Murrumbidgee Irrigation Areas in southern NSW during the irrigation seasons of 1997/98, 1998/99 and 1999/00. To undertake the points of infiltration the Idaho Seepage Meter was used as a result of being rapid, direct and cheap. The study investigation were undertaken on farm trials using EM31, Peizometer measurements, soil texture and salinity measurements, channel distribution on farm, channel seepage metres, inflow and out flow and depth of flow channel width. The conclusion of the project indicated that EM31 reading were strongly related to change in seepage rate. It was stated that area’s of low conductivity compared to surrounding areas inferred that the leakage rate was high. It was also stated soil types and water depth in the centre of channels or drains are the most important channel factors with respect to seepage in the on-farm channels and drains. It was indicated that seepage magnitude is affected considerably by the width of the channel. The EM31 measurements provide very good results for the identification and quantification of seepage.  Additionally the combination of the Idaho seepage meter and EM31 measurement provided a good technique for the identification and quantification of seepage from sections of the on-farm channels and drains.

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Microwaving rice may help grain moisture determination (August 2001)


This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information on how to undertake the microwaving method and using a microwave to estimate grain moisture. It states a microwave oven and kitchen balance may lead to better decisions for lock up or drainage for rice harvest, by providing a quick and simple estimate for grain moisture. The article concluded that drying grain in a microwave oven has the potential to be rapid measure of grain moisture. The method could be used to track the moisture content of the grain as the grain progresses towards harvest as well as for determining moisture at a particular point in time, eg lock up prior to harvest. 

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Management of rice using saline bore irrigation water. (June 1995)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information on the management of rice using saline bore irrigation water. The article states that good irrigation layouts and continued monitoring of rice bay water salinity are fundamentally significant in maintaining low water salinity and achieving optimum yields when utilising deep bore water or growing rice on saline soils for rice production. The article discusses area such as ground preparation, water management, monitoring of rice ground, bores, bays and salinity, crop management, rice drainage and herbicide management. 

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Better pastures after rice (November 1990)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents research results of an experiment undertaken at Yanco Agricultural institute over the 1988 and 1989 rice growing seasons. The study investigated the various sowing techniques including aerial sown rice at drainage, aerial sown into standing rice stubble, sod sown into standing  rice stubble, aerial post flag burn, sod sown after flag burn, sod sown after slashing and burning and so sown after slashing, burning and cultivating. The research concluded that aerial sowing after flag burning rice stubble was proved to be most successful pasture establishment method. It was state that this method produced significantly better plant yield than all other treatments. 

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Establishing clover after rice (1989)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information and results on establishing clover after rice. In 1988 the weather conditions experiences proved that sod sowing after burning were more successful than aerial sowing at draining. During the season Paradana, Maral and Trikkala all grew well rice with the late sowing although Haifa did not establish or yield as well. The season also saw Trikkala established well regardless of sowing method where as Maral and Paradana established and yielded much better when stubble was burnt. The conclusion was that different conditions will produce different results therefore the experiment was expanded to include additional sowing methods and times. 

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Water supply channel structures, flows and head losses (November 1988)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information on the preparation of maintaining an irrigation system. It is stated that a system of supply channels that are well maintained, easy to operate and allow you to water when and where you want is essential to the working of an irrigation farm. The article suggested it is essential to survey the whole area to be developed so a plan can be designed prior to machinery arrive. A brief on each of the following; head loses, supply channels, bay outlets, recycling, storage dams, drainage channels and pipe culvert and crossing are presented. 

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Sodseeding wheat and barley into rice stubble. (1976)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information for management factors that that can be controlled by the grower when sodseeding wheat and barley into rice stubble. The article presents information on paddock selection, rice drainage, stubble disposal, slashing, burning, sod seeder operation, sewing time and rates fertilizer rates and economics. 

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