Pseudomonas fuscovaginae is a bacterial pathogen of rice that causes sheath brown rot, grain discolouration and panicle sterility. It is slowly gaining recognition as a yield constraint of rice in many regions of the world. Although, P. fuscovaginae was first reported in Australia in 2009, there is little information available on the relative pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the Australian strains when compared to world strains. In this thesis its pathogenicity and aggressiveness, as well as prevalence in the rice growing areas of the Riverina region in New South Wales Australia were presented. Australian strains were more pathogenic and aggressive than world strains. The DAR 77138 strain from Australia was the most pathogenic and aggressive. A further survey of bacteria associated with discolouration of the panicle and sheath in the rice growing areas of the Riverina region in NSW Australia in 2010, failed to find any P. fuscovaginae.Read More
This RIRDC reports on the Rice Quality V project undertaken at DPI NSW the core activity of Rice Quality V is the assessment of breeding lines for various physical and chemical quality traits at different generations of the breeding program. This work culminates with the release of new Australian rice varieties such as Sherpa. The comprehensive development of breeding lines that includes both agronomic and quality benefits ensures that all sectors of the rice marketing value chain involved in the production and supply of rice from the growers to grain processors to marketers will be profitable and sustainable. There were 3 core objectives of Rice Quality V: Perform the routine Quality Evaluation Program in a timely manner. Continue to improve the efficiency, accuracy and cost of the Quality Evaluation Program Continue to conduct research that compliments and develops the scope of the Quality Evaluation Program. The purpose of these objectives was to broaden the scope of the Quality Evaluation Program, speed the delivery of data to breeders and to revise existing facilities, data management and equipment to minimise potential sources of error in the accumulation of data. Over time, these efficiencies will allow better decision making by the rice breeders and ultimately the release of better varieties in more regular intervals.Read More
Rice (Oryza sativa) is recognised as a source of starch in the diet and is generally consumed as a whole grain or as a flour ingredient. Rice varieties have different qualities that suit different food applications. Some examples include the chalky
rice variety Illabong used for risotto, the soft cooking Opus for sushi, or the long grain, fragrant variety Kyeema as an excellent accompaniment to Asian foods. Some varities confer specific health benefits – for example, the variety Doongara is known for its low glycemic index (GI).
This IREC Farmers newsletter article reports on the 2006/2007 growing seasons and research undertaken by Rice breeders at NSW DPI Yanco. 2006-07 rice growing season saw water restrictions reduce the advance breeding lines. As a result the focus was re directed to early generation screening using DNA markers. A direct result of the drought is the water restrictions, reduced funding, no replacement of capital items and reduced labour and operational funding. This will restrict the possibility of a release of a new variety in next two years as the inability to undertake the only farm testing and evaluation phase. Although 14 on farm trials were sown however due to water restrictions only 5 were harvested. As a result of water reductions and drought the 2006-07 growing season re focused on field based cold tolerance and straighthead. It was also a season to focused screening early generations using DNA markers. The year also proved valuable time to develop linkages and new projects for future varieties China study tours were undertaken and future ACIAR projects were developed during this season.
This IREC Farmer Newsletter presents information on the RIRDC funded project USC6A. The Sequenom®MassARRAY®, are a result of human genome developments and enabled efficient analysis of human genomes. These machines are now being used to gather information about rice. To date information of all five important rice genes are able to be obtain in a single test using the Sequenom® MassARRAY®. This is a vast improvement on eight different individual test that was required prior to the development of the Sequenom® MassARRAY®. This reduces cost and time to obtain the information to determine if the breeding line carries the desirable trait.Read More
This IREC Farmers Newsletter article reports on the 2005/2006 research undertaken by rice breeding team at DPI NSW at Yanco. The current lines tested in the rice breeding program in 2005-2006 growing season saw near prefect growing conditions to see the work into gene association with yield potential expressed. The results were indicated as Reiziq performing well both in trials and commercially. It is has been seen long term averages are similar average yields to Amaroo. It is reported that the new Quest type will be available for pure seed scheme in 2007/08 crop. YRM69 which is the new medium grain indicated that it combines, mid season maturity, increased cold tolerance and high yield potential, however there was still room for further investigations in to milling quality.
As rice growers know all to well, cold temperatures damage the developing pollen, causing grain sterility and lower crop yields. Yield reductions of more than 1 t/ha, due to low temperatures, occur about one year in four (on average) and cost the Australian rice industry around $50–60 million, depending on the year. Improvements in cold tolerance of rice will have significant economic benefits to the industry, as rice production could be increased and the capacity for a more stable supply of rice would secure current and future markets. Cold temperatures during the rice growing season can result in significant yield loss and significant income loss to the industry. The deep water required on the rice field throughout the cold sensitive early microspore stage of pollen development, would not be necessary with cold tolerant rice. The use of molecular markers to identify the genetics behind cold tolerance are being investigated. The current methods used to investigate cold tolerance rely on selecting the appropriate time to expose crops to cold, which can be difficult.Read More
This IREC Farmers Newsletter article reports on the DArT project. The project was undertaken at NSW DPI, Yanco Agricultural Institute and resulted in the development of a DArT reference panel to represent the genome of future breeding lines and introduced varieties. By using DArT it allows the breeders to to view the comparison of DNA parent line and their progeny. This allows for measuring genetic diversity among breeding lines and cultivars at the molecular level. There are currently (2006) 243 diverse rice varieties from around the world. Within this group there are 50 varieties that are used in Yancos breeding program. With in this project a subset of 69 semi dwarf lines were phenotyped for seedling vigor from this set the DArT analysis showed that 61 DArT markers that varied therefore specific DNA fragments associated with seeding vigour require improvement.Read More