Understanding the influences of amylose and protein contents on rice sensory properties is key to maintaining quality and providing consumers with rice with desired flavour and textural attributes. This research focused on delineating the effects of nitrogen nutrition on cooked rice texture and flavour. The sensory properties of cultivars grown in adjoining fields with differing rates of nitrogen fertilizer (to yield grains with a large spread in protein contents) were measured by a panel trained in descriptive analysis. Second. rice sensory properties were modelled using apparent amylose and protein data. Fertilizer level affected protein and apparent amylose contents and, in turn, cooked rice texture. Protein contents were significantly higher (P < 0.0007) and apparent amylose contents were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) at the higher fertilizer level. Models revealed a negative correlation of protein content with initial starchy coating, slickness, and stickiness between grains—three attributes that are perceived when cooked rice is first introduced into the mouth. Models for roughness, hardness, and moisture absorption—attributes representing three phases of evaluation in the mouth—showed a positive correlation with protein content. The models provide insight into the magnitude of change in protein content that is likely required to observe textural changes in cooked rice.Read More
Perceptions of rice cold damage by farmers, advisers and researchers- the 2004 Experience.Read More
The International Rice Conference was held at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos, in the Philippines, 31 March - 4 April, 2000. The conference is only held every five years, and it provides a forum for rice scientists throughout Asia and the rest of the world to track new developments, present and discuss rice research. The underlying message from a range of plant breeding technologies and research institutes is that my combinations of growth habits and yield components lead to high yield potential. Further research needs to be conducted at Yanco to assess the value or other of using canopy temperature as an indirect measure of crop growth rate. Several nurseries exist throughout the world for observing the growth of a large numbers of rice varieties. If NSW cultivars are to be included in such nurseries in the future, there is the need for the development of a policy by the owners (RIRDC and NSW Agriculture) of current and future rice cultivars.Read More
Fragrant rices fall into two main categories, jasmine, associated mainly with Thailand, and basmati, generally associated with the Indian sub-continent. New varieties of both are being developed at Yanco Agricultural Institute. As part of these programs, research at the University of New South Wales is examining the aroma and textural properties of new varieties, with prime focus on the newer basmati types. A second season of data showing that volatile components for young rice plants could be used to detect fragrance has been collected. Sensory data have been collected regarding perception of fragrant rice vs non-fragrant rice flavour from about 200 people of differing ages and cultural backgrounds.Read More
Reproductive cold damage is the main environmental limitation to yields in the NSW rice industry, causing an average loss of approximately 2 t/ha over the last 10 years. In extreme years, this can cost the rice industry over $60 million. The mechanisms by which cold temperatures cause pollen sterility are poorly understood. This lack of knowledge needed to be addressed to accelerate the rate at which resistance to cold-temperature sterility can be introduced into current commercial cultivars. Past research has been unable to identify the causes of the sterility. Recent technological advances in proteomics offer the ability to discover what causes sterility and provide the breeding program with an understanding of what traits to incorporate for resistance to cold-temperature sterility.Read More
As summarised last year, our results demonstrate that a number of bacterial strains can significantly alter the growth of a rice seedling, either by enhancing it or by inhibiting it. In addition, many of these strains also have the ability to colonise onto and survive inside the rice seedling tissues without producing any gross disease effects. Some strains possess the ability to specifically colonise the first main anchor root and not apparently the other subsequent anchor roots. The genes responsible for this specialised colonisation property may also be associated with the observed enhanced seedling growth. We are now searching after these genes responsible for this specific type of rice colonisation characteristic to examine further this possible relationship. Experiments have shown that the growth of rice seedlings can be enhanced by inoculation with rhizobia. This effect is rice cultivar specific, bacterial strain dependant and can be influenced by the growth conditions used.Read More
This IREC Farmers Newsletter presents information on a study undertaken between 1994-2001. The study investigated the Crop Information Sheets that are presented with rice NIR tissue test. The aim was to identify the crop pasture sequence pattern on rice farms. Rice crops may be grown in rotation with other crops and pastures or as only crop on a portion of ‘rice’ farms. The report presents information on defining continuous cultivation and presents figures and information from the database including 35% of rice farms practiced continuous rice cultivation. It was seen that continuous rice crops can produce good yields provided inputs of nitrogen, phosphorus and in some cases zinc are increased and weeds managed. From this report it is suggested that more frequent soil tests are suggested to detect changes in fertility.Read More
This IREC Farmer Newsletter article presents an update of a RIRDC project DAN 156A that was investigating the susceptibility of rice cultivars to stem root fungus. The project investigated 13 different Australian cultivars under two experiments outlined in the report.Read More
This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents research results of an experiment undertaken at Yanco Agricultural institute over the 1988 and 1989 rice growing seasons. The study investigated the various sowing techniques including aerial sown rice at drainage, aerial sown into standing rice stubble, sod sown into standing rice stubble, aerial post flag burn, sod sown after flag burn, sod sown after slashing and burning and so sown after slashing, burning and cultivating. The research concluded that aerial sowing after flag burning rice stubble was proved to be most successful pasture establishment method. It was state that this method produced significantly better plant yield than all other treatments.Read More
This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information and results of an experiment conducted at Yanco Agriculture research centre to compare sod seeding with conventional drilling of Inga into a three year sub clover pasture. The author concluded that sod sowing Inga into pasture and using a non selective herbicide a establishment and early growth will be similar to that of conventional drill sown crops. It was also seen that up take of nitrogen from decomposing soil organic matter resulted in high grain yields in sod sown crops. It was however noted that growers should be cautious in adding nitrogen fertiliser to Inga sown into short term sub clover pastures.
This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information on mouldboarding to try to prepare rice land for other crop uses. At the time of the article the Department of Primary industry had purchased a Mouldboard to trial in breaking up sub soil and using in farm demonstrations. This will be used for future experiments in comparing with rippers and rotary tillers. The department will also investigate stubble incorporation. The article concludes that at present it is very expensive to contemplate deep cultivations and rotations were being changed drastically at the time. This they believed would lead no definite plans at the time but the department would keep working on it.
Trials carried out by Mr Warren Muirhead, Research Agronomist, C.S.I.R.0., Griffith, have shown that satisfactory yields of barley can be obtained from crops sown after rice harvest. Irrigation of the crop during the spring is essential to prevent excessive salt accumulation in the root zone in areas with high salty water tables.Read More