Posts tagged Fungi
Exotic Pest Alert: Bakanae (July 2012)

This DPI NSW Fact sheet is a brief overview of Bakanae. The fact sheet presents a brief introduction Bakanae and effect to Australia rice. Followed by the symptoms to be observed and where for example on the plant to look for the fungus. This is followers by an explanation of the disease cycle, the types of host including rice, sugar cane and sorghum, reporting of the disease and further reading available.

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Allelopathic Potential in Rice to Control Arrowhead in New South Wales Rice Crops - CHAPTERS 1 ONLY (2003)

Twenty-eight rice (Oryza saliva L.) varieties with different countries of origin, maturity and stage of improvement were screened in the laboratory for allelopathic potential against arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis), a weed infesting rice crops of southeast New South Wales, Australia. In addition, three West African crosses between Oryza saliva and 0. glaberrima, one 0. glabbermia variety and two of the wildest 0. saliva varieties in the Yanco Agricultural Institute's germplasm collection were tested.  Using the Equal Compartment Agar Method (ECAM), significant differences were found among rice varieties in their ability to suppress the root growth of arrowhead seedlings. The degree of inhibition ranged from 26.6% to 99.7%. As some rice varieties have a much greater allelopathic effect, there appears to be a genetic basis for this differential allelopathic potential.

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A GIS approach to quantify impact of flooding on shallow groundwater level in the Wakool Irrigation District (2003)

Environmental degradation associated with shallow saline watertables is a major threat to the sustainability of agricultural industry throughout the Murray-Darling Basin. Located in the western part of the Murray Valley of NSW, the Wakool Irrigation District has experienced a history of water table rise, including likely contributions from widespread flooding. The community is interested in scientific evidence quantifying the impact of flooding on the shallow groundwater, in order to target management actions to control water table rise and salinity in this area.  This study estimates the spatial and temporal impact of flooding on shallow groundwater for the Wakool Irrigation District through an extensive GIS analysis based on a large amount of piezometric data monitored over many years.

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A GIS Approach to Quantify Impact of Flooding on Shallow Groundwater Levels in the Wakool Irrigation District - RIRDC Project USC-6A (October 2003)

Environmental degradation associated with shallow saline watertables is a major threat to the sustainability of agricultural industry throughout the Murray-Darling Basin. Located in the western part of the Murray Valley of NSW, the Wakool Irrigation District has experienced a history of water table rise, including likely contributions from widespread flooding. The community is interested in scientific evidence quantifying the impact of flooding on the shallow groundwater, in order to target management actions to control water table rise and salinity in this area.  This study estimates the spatial and temporal impact of flooding on shallow groundwater for the Wakool Irrigation District through an extensive GIS analysis based on a large amount of piezometric data monitored over many years.  By compiling the piezometric data into a GIS database and analysing the data in a GIS application, we are able to quantify the net recharge caused by flooding and to visualize the spatial extent of the impact of flooding on the shallow water table reflected by water table change.

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Quantifying Impact Of Rainfall On Shallow Groundwater Table in the Wakool Irrigation District (October 2003)

Water table rise and salinity are major threats to the sustainability of agriculture in the Wakool area. In order to improve groundwater and salinity management in the Wakool area, it is necessary to quantify impact of both climate and management on shallow groundwater table.  Rainfall as a major climate indicator and hydrology component plays an important role in regional hydrology and environment, as well as in water table change. This study attempts to quantify the impact of rainfall as a major climate indicator on shallow groundwater in the Wakool area based on the piezometric data in this area and the rainfall data in a wider area. GIS techniques have been extensively used in this study for data processing and analysis, especially for generating the spatial distributions of rainfall and groundwater table over the study period, for analysing the spatial extent of groundwater table changes, and for calculating relevant volumes for various time intervals.

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Floodwater salinity in rice bays (2002)

This IREC Farmer Newsletter article presents information on floodwater salinity in rice bays. The weather conditions during the season led to increased salinity levels and some salt damage in rice bays. Likely sites for high salinity levels are the last bay in fields with staggered stops; the furthest end from the supply in bankless channel systems; or bays in natural contour systems with poor circulation. Idle water in recirculation system may also have high salt levels. 

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A pathogen can help rice to overcome weeds (2001)

A previous research project (UCA-7 A) reported in Farmers' Newsletter - Rice Special (March 2000) the potential of a fungal inoculant (mycoherbicide) for use in the integrated management of starfruit.  A new project further studies the potential of this mycoherbicide in glasshouse and field evaluations.  A fungal inoculant reduced the competitive effect of starfruit on rice plants, as measured by plant biomass.  Field evaluation of the inoculant will commence in 2001.

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Snail control with chlorothalonil - a new use for an old chemical? RIRDC Project DAN-184A (2001)

Chlorothalonil is a non-systemic fungicide that has been used in a range of crops for many years. A chance discovery overseas showed it to be highly toxic to aquatic snails and trial work at Yanco has shown that the main species of snail attacking rice plants in NSW, is also highly susceptible to this chemical.  Farmers need to be aware that chlorothalonil is not yet registered for use in rice, and its use in contravention of label directions is an offence under the NSW Pesticides Act, 1999.  The fungicide chlorothalonil has the potential to replace copper sulphate for the control of snails in rice.

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The current status of control of water plantain - RIRDC Project TA 990-09 (2001)

Common water plantain (Alisma plantagoaquatica) is an aquatic perennial weed in rice (Oryza sativa) grown in New South Wales (NSW) and California in the United States (U.S.), and in cultivated wild rice (Zizania aquatica) grown in Minnesota. Cultivated wild rice and rice are dissimilar plants that are grown on opposite ends of the world; however, these plants do have some similarities. Both are grown in aquatic conditions, have similar nutritional requirements, utilise many of the same agronomic practices and machinery, and have common weed and disease problems. Currently, rice in Australia is relatively disease-free.

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Rice stubble decomposition, sugar and all that - RIRDC Project CSL-12A (2001)

Anecdotal evidence suggests that some rice growers incorporate stubble, only to dig it up again a year or more later to see that it is still there, hardly touched. As soil microbes are the beasts responsible for most stubble decomposition, the most obvious answer to this dilemma is that there are not enough microbes in the soil.  The project demonstrated that a lack of nitrate nitrogen in the soil not only slowed down stubble decomposition but could almost stop it. An increase in fungal organisms compared to bacterial organisms was also observed in the decomposition

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New Disease found in rice crops (August 2001)

A survey was conducted in rice crops in 1995 to establish the presence or absence of stem rot.  During this survey another disease was identified. This disease was similar to stem rot, causing lesions on the leaf sheath.  Sheath spot of rice was discovered in NSW rice crops in 1995 and is now reasonably widespread.  The disease may make the crop more susceptible to lodging.   The disease can be identified by sending rice samples to Yanco Agricultural institute.

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Progress with biocontrol of Alisma (2000)


This IREC Farmers Newsletter presents information and progress on the RIRDC project DAN 121A investigating biocontrol of Alisma and starfruit. The speed at which the biocontrol fungus causes disease can be manipulated by how the conidia are grown. Robust spore called chlamydospores, offer another form of inoculum for this fungus. The project is producing an infective inoculum of fungus Rhynchosporium alismatis for control.

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Investigating a potential biological control agent to supress starfruit in rice fields (1998)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter articles presents an update of the RIRDC project UCS-7A. This article covers the background for the research, current research and future research. The outcome for this project was a management strategy that incorporates none chemical control methods will be relevant to those who already have resistance problems and will be relevant to those who wish to avoid the development of herbicide resistance biotypes of star fruit in the future.

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How much water does rice really need? (November 1996)

This IREC Farmer Newsletter article present information on how much water rice needs. The article covers areas including evaporation from flooded rice, amount of water that is evaporated from flood rice paddocks, evapotranspiration vary from season to season, evapotranspirtaion vary between location of rice growing areas, rainfall, effective rainfall, rice irrigation requirements in an average season, the amount of water stored in soil, rice water use targets and seasonal adjustments of rice water use targets. 

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