Posts tagged Sod
The Efficacy of Rice as a Leaching Crop - Project No. 2105 (2005)

The concluding phase(s) of a rice rotation experiment presented the opportunity to assess the effect of consecutive crops of rice on the chemistry of the soil profile.  An experiment which aimed to determine the potential to use high salinity groundwater for the irrigation of the non-rice phases of a wheat - sub.clover - rice rotation, and then use rice, irrigated with low salinity channel water (<0.1 dS/m), as a leaching crop was undertaken.  The rotation included a single rice crop between each cycle of the application of saline groundwater.  Although soil salinity of most horizons under saline treatments could be reduced by leaching in the rice phase (single crop), this was not true for sodicity. Average rootzone sodicity remained elevated above control values at the end of each cycle and increased following successive cycles.

Read More
A strategic soil nitrogen test for flooded rice (2005)

This CRC report presents the results of the project undertaken to investigate s strategic soil nitrogen tests for flooded rice. The trial was undertaken between 1998 through until 2002. The projects aim was to develop a system to forecast the optimum N supply for pre-flood application and minimize the amount being topdressed which has been a safe, but inefficient system. The method undertaken included using wet chemistry to assist in developing a test by comparing the near infrared reflectance specatra with crop productivity and N Mineraliseation. Whilst 22 previous experiments measuring yield response to N applied at sowing were also used. The study undertook seventeen methods of mineralisation and the most reliable was found to be anaerobic incubation at 40°C for 21 days. This method predicted the optimum N requirement with a standard error of about 75 kgN/ha, which is clearly unsatisfactory for an industry where the average amount of N fertiliser applied is 145 kgN/ha. There was some evidence that sowing date and deficiencies of other nutrients were partly responsible for the variability of the N response. The project concluded that there were close relationships of the NIR spectra with crop productivity and N mineralisation but because of the small data set the relationships had little predictive value. However the close relationships found between NIRS, N mineralisation measured in the laboratory and crop performance produced encouragement for further studies. The study also concluded that there were two options proposed for more reliable application of N fertiliser at the time of sowing. The first to use the existing soil test only to identify soils with large amounts of potentially mineralisable N. Such a test could be the basis of a recommendation to apply little or no N fertiliser before sowing. Rice growers would still have the option of topdressing N fertiliser at the panicle initiation stage. The results in this project suggest that yield responses are more accurately predicted by sodicity than by the soil N test. The recommendation were to undertake further studies in this area.

Read More
Rice season 1989/90 record yields revisted (November 1990)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents results of the 1989/90 season which an average of 8.1 tonne per hectare was maintained. The season saw rice areas sown increase by 10 % due to good water availability. The season also saw Yanco bred varieties increase to 90% and aerially sown rice increased to 80%. Due to wet winter crops were sown later and mild reproduction temperature caused few cold stress problems. There were however some grain quality issues due to dry warm harvest weather. The report presents further information on the sown areas, sowing methods time of sowing growing conditions, nitrogen and water depth management. 

Read More
Better pastures after rice (November 1990)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents research results of an experiment undertaken at Yanco Agricultural institute over the 1988 and 1989 rice growing seasons. The study investigated the various sowing techniques including aerial sown rice at drainage, aerial sown into standing rice stubble, sod sown into standing  rice stubble, aerial post flag burn, sod sown after flag burn, sod sown after slashing and burning and so sown after slashing, burning and cultivating. The research concluded that aerial sowing after flag burning rice stubble was proved to be most successful pasture establishment method. It was state that this method produced significantly better plant yield than all other treatments. 

Read More
Rice season 1988/89 (September 1989)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents the results of the 1988/89 season. The season saw record average yield of 8 tonnes per hectare. The article presents information on how this was achieved and the changes since 1980/81 season when the averages were 7.27 tonnes per hectare. The article states the improvements are a result of adoption o f high yielding semi dwarf varieties, improved nitrogen management, weed control and improved crop establishment. The article discusses issues such as aerial sowing, combine sowing, sod seeded pastures and stubble, varieties, growing conditions and yields. The article concludes that this improvement can be maintained by continuing to sow on time, the right rates of nitrogen and maintaining deep water at early pollen stage.

Read More
Establishing clover after rice (1989)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information and results on establishing clover after rice. In 1988 the weather conditions experiences proved that sod sowing after burning were more successful than aerial sowing at draining. During the season Paradana, Maral and Trikkala all grew well rice with the late sowing although Haifa did not establish or yield as well. The season also saw Trikkala established well regardless of sowing method where as Maral and Paradana established and yielded much better when stubble was burnt. The conclusion was that different conditions will produce different results therefore the experiment was expanded to include additional sowing methods and times. 

Read More
Rice season 1985/86 (1986)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents the results from the 1985 rice growing seasons. Pelde completely replaced Inga in 1985 and the feature of the season was low temperatures particularly during vegative, reproductive and delayed maturity which reduced yields. The reports presents the information on the sowing, temperatures for the season, the harvests and yields, weed control and nitrogen application. Low temperatures during early pollen formation stage also proved a hazard. However results still averaged 6.47 tonnes per hectare which was considered reasonable.  

Read More
How much does sub clover increase rice yield? (1984)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents results of a trial conducted to measure the effect of different sub clover varieties on rice yield and their ability to regenerate after a rice crop. The results show that short term sub clover can contribute significantly to the soil nitrogen level but when more than two years growth, it may be required to ensure high populations regenerate following the rice crop. 

Read More
Why not sow wheat after rice harvest (1984)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information and strategies on sod sowing wheat after rice harvest. The research was undertaken over a five seasons. The article presents a number of reasons as to why sod sowing directly into rice stubble is better than other preparation techniques. These include the stubble providing a mulch, reduction in water loss from soil, slowing of weed growth and loss of seed to birds. Remain stubble provides a firm soil therefore allowing seed to be sown soon after rain. The conclusion of the report states that the trials over the five year period were successful and sod sowing in to rice stubble is time efficient and economically viable. 

Read More
Sod seeding Inga into pasture (1981)


This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information and results of an experiment conducted at Yanco Agriculture research centre to compare sod seeding with conventional drilling of Inga into a three year sub clover pasture. The author concluded that sod sowing Inga into pasture and using a non selective herbicide a establishment and early growth will be similar to that of conventional drill sown crops. It was also seen that up take of nitrogen from decomposing soil organic matter resulted in high grain yields in sod sown crops. It was however noted that growers should be cautious in adding nitrogen fertiliser to Inga sown into short term sub clover pastures. 

Read More
Comparative rice establishment cost Murray valley (1980)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter presents information on the move to sod seeding in the Murray Valley. This change in the region came about as a result of farmers purchasing triple disk seeders to sow inter crops and this giving them the opportunity to increase efficiency with this machine. The budgets presents in this report are considered partial budgets as cost such as water, armyworm control, harvests and cartage would differ between each method. The article presents two scenarios the first sowing into previous years rice stubble and the second sowing into paddock with history of 3-4 years of pasture. The scenarios both have seed, fertiliser, machinery, sowing herbicides and blood worm control included in the budgets. The article also includes points to consider for both budgets and scenarios. 

Read More
Energy- cost of rice establishment (1979)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter presents information and expenditures on the energy cost of rice establishment. It was undertaken as result of the increasing diesel price and increasing sizes of rice area. The article presents budgets for the three different methods of combine, aerial and sod seeding. The budgets have many variable s and the authors states that they should be considered as only partial budgets. 

Read More
Sod Seeding rice to maintain pasture rotations (1978)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article presents information and recommendations on pasture rotation. The article outlines the advantages of pastures, a suggested rotation and sod seeding into pastures. It also explains whether knockdown herbicides are necessary, the recommended rates of spray, dock controls in pasture paddocks and the sod seeding into rice stubble. 

Read More
Barnyard grass control in sod seeded rice stubble (1977)

This IREC Farmers Newsletter article is a result of poor performance of Ordram in the 76/77 season experienced by many farmers. The article presents information on the control of Barn Yard grass in sod seeded rice stubble. The article presents information on rice stubble ash which it describes as a chemical de activator.  The wet October produced large amounts of barnyard grass which created a difficult situation and farmers had a tendency to use reduced rates of Ordram. The article present ideas on solving the problem for poor results, preventing future.

Read More